Emphasis on indigeneity, the federal revenue allocation formula and the increasing formalization of the 'federal character' principle, to mention only a few issues, increase sources of tensions and potential conflicts. is one of the devices built into the federal constitution of Nigeria as a means of achieving unity in diversity. It was subsequently, not until after the American constitution of 1787, that a new concept of federalism was introduced. V(B8eDK@sx AK hG~ u;6DV,pwP# _ O4C sR 8_yC ! 9S ) ?roh _ O4C sR & Pf?? AK kyC?& Pf;_Hu j_ G$: 5/ /Subtype /Image Reasons for Federalism 3.1 Reasons for a federal order rather than separate states or secession 3.2 Reasons for preferring federal orders over a unitary state 4. One of the major reasons why countries choose federalism is because of size. This paper exploits the growth benefits that ICT sector has provided and its impact on the Nigerian economy. To know more about various aspects of federalism in Nigeria ,you may read from . Military administration does not apply the principle of federation. The Babangida administration followed the same step and created 21 states and more local governments. As a result, issues relating to marginalization, economic imbalance, social alienation, ethnic suspicion and superior-subordination contestation are recurring malaises in the system. It is believed by many that this was one of the reasons why Nigeria adopted a federalist system. First, how to properly place peoples, better still - indigenes and ethnic groupings, in their relevant socio-economic categories; that is, in line with the oil windfalls. Nigeria. This is because most of the power (financial and. So for effective governance of a country of this big size, federalism has to be adopted. In this article, I will elucidate and discuss with references the reasons for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria. What a nice article, very educative for students in school, Could you please explain fear of minorities, Could you please explain fear of minorities, Economic factors and Diversities in culture. The military were able to create more states because military decrees do not pass the same rigorous method bills pass in a democratic government. Your email address will not be published. Federalism in India. Another factor that prompted the adoption of federalism in Nigeria is the fear of insecurity and the desire for union. . The United States, Canada, India, France and Australia adopted federalism because of the desire for security by the various ethnic units. 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To learn more, view ourPrivacy Policy. five reasons for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria explained. /Resources << It has been suggested that the creation of more states and local government have helped in the distribution of national cake. Federalism was implemented in Nigeria as way back as 1946 during the British colonial era. Secondly, are these groups well pleased, or do they at least accept such manipulative placements? In a unitary constitution which opposes federal principles, everything belongs to the central government; the federating unit does not exist, let alone agitating for resource control. ! The federal system adopted in 1954 comprised a national government and three regional governments: Eastern, Northern, and Western. In Nigerian democracy, there is a federalist system of government. Keep it up , Yes , I love it and I was sentitize on those reasons. Other specific reasons for the increasing demand for decentralisation are: Central governments increasingly are finding that it is impossible for them to . You are welcome dear reader. Also see: Differences between Cross-offers and counter-offers, five reasons for the adoption of federalism in nigeria. The paper contends that unitary federalism in Nigeria is an imposition and extension of colonial and military entrenched inequalities in the Nigerian state. Pls visit us again dear reader. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB The Complete Material Will Be Sent To Your . Identities can be in terms of ethnicity, culture, religion and other differences," she says. It is on this footing, herewith, that one can properly understand the rational for, and theory of federalism, what and why certain trends theme up federal-state relations in Nigeria, and the features of federal-state relations in Nigeria. >> Abstract One of the arguments for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria is the desire for economic and political viability and development in a nation of uneven distribution of human and. By the time Nigeria got her independence, the various party involved had been regionally based. Resource control: 3.7 7. *$( %2%(,-/0/#484.7*./. C The proximity of the tongues and tribes in Nigeria made it possible for the adoption of federalism in the country. That is often the reason why some adherents of Marx quarrel vehemently about such preordained classification such as: haves and have-nots; and the liberal minds grappling with, insisting not only that all hands are not equal, but that they must never, for whatsoever reason at all, be made equal - believing that that would tantamount to the highest injustice. ff>qsfN? Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. Parliamentary and Unitary system of government were in operation in Nigeria between 1914 and 1946. /F3 12 0 R by the federal or any state government. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Since Nigeria is a heterogeneous nation and Federalism is more practicable in such kind of nation, it is an ideal system of government. +rohyC ! 9S ) ?roh _ O4C sR & Pf?? AK kyC?& Pf;_Hu j_ G$: 5/ Besides the Big Three Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba, there are other macro and micro ethnic minorities in the country. It is our pleasure. In many countries of the world, federalism has emerged as a means of accommodating the growing desire of people to preserve or revive the intimacy of small societies and the growing necessity for larger combinations to mobilize the utilization of common resources. Your email address will not be published. British North American colonies unite 3 Up to 1867, the colonies 4 of British North America had no political or geographical links. /F2 9 0 R It represents a synthetic between two perspectiveneess; one is that politics of the United States should produce the good commonwealth and the other is that the principal task of politics is to create an open political market. The disadvantages are that it can set off a race to the bottom among states, cause cross-state economic and social disparities, and obstruct federal efforts . . Why indirect rule succeeded in Northern Nigeria, SEE REASONS HERE. 7. The effectiveness of linking communications has been a vital factor in geographical unit. The analysis of the emerging issues and scenarios as well as the response options aims at supporting the efforts of different stakeholders including the Federal government on managing the current pro-Biafra agitation. stream But before moving to the crux of this article, we will be looking briefly at the meaning and history of federalism in Nigeria. This is also one of the reasons for federal system of government in Nigeria. This type of government is also known as a "federation" or a "federal state" in common parlance (eg., United States of America). In order to examine these issues, this paper adopted qualitative research and intrinsic approach methodology, along with relative deprivation theory. In examining post-independence constitution-making in Nigeria, this chapter finds that military rule blighted Nigerias capacity to respond appropriately to the challenges of federalism. Abacha regime, added more states making Nigeria a federation of 36 states and Federal capital Territory at Abuja. >> Asst. The Hausa Fulani and the Minorities feared the domination of political powers by the Igbos and Yorubas. Federalism in Nigeria refers to the devolution of self-governance by the West African nation of Nigeria to its federated states, who share sovereignty with the Federal Government . The Political Economy and Un-ending Search, Agitation for Restructuring and Resource Control in Nigeria's Federalism: Issues, Perspectives and the Way Forward, Federalism, Military Legacies and the Restructuring Debate in Contemporary Nigeria, Federalism, Decentralisation and the Liberalisation of Business Environment in Nigeria, Hands Behind their backs: Making a case for a region-centred restructuring framework, Nigerian Pseudo-Federalism and the Agitations for Restructuring, The evolution of fiscal centralism and strong centre federalism in Nigeria An historical analysis, The Nigerian fiscal formulas and the agitations for resource control in the Niger delta region of. Also read: Highest paying law firms in Nigeria. Federalism as a system of government which is meant to help to advance good governance and development of a multi-ethnic and big country like Nigeria. The Legacy of Biafra: An Investigation into trauma as National Identity Fragmentation, Under Reconstruction: Ethnicity, Ethnic Nationalism, and the Future of the Nigerian State, ETHNIC SCHISM IN NIGERIA: A SOCIO-LITERAY STUDY OF CHINUA ACHEBE'S THERE WAS COUNTRY. It came about following the necessity for administrative convenience and managerial expenses. All attempts to solve these problems over the years have failed. It should be noted, however, that the Leagues significantly differ from modern federations in one respect: namely, while the various governments freely interacted, no prosperous direct contact between the populace of the various governments was permitted. Besides the Big Three - Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba, there are other macro and micro ethnic minorities in the country. In the case of Nigeria - how the oil money will be (in)judiciously dealt with. This was one of the major reasons for the creation of the newer and smaller states after the independence. The USA and Canada were formed with the above interest at heart. Adobe d C >> In the first place, therefore, the contemplation of a federal pact is one of an overwhelming outcome of the emphatic need to handle the above concerns acceptably. Federalism: Federal Features in the Colonial State." A chronology of critical events in Nigeria's political development from the adoption of a federal system in 1954 to the present is provided in Table 1. Pillars of democracy: 7 Essential pillars of democracy. 2. Mainly of telling who is who in a given society. Constitutionalism in Nigeria has been crisis-ridden since independence in 1960. The first military head of state, General J.T.U Aguiyi Ironsi for instance was interested in a unitary Nigeria and he scrapped federalism. Federalism in Nigeria. Federalism can be defined as a system of government in which political powers of the state are shared between the central government and other component units. I love this article,very educating and interesting The size of Nigeria is therefore managed and maintained with federalism. In developing countries like India, Iraq and Nigeria, federalism has either failed to close developmental gaps and ethno-communal tensions among various states or, more worryingly, in some. So for effective governance of a country of this big size, federalism has to be adopted. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. Wheare who contends that it is a system where powers are shared between central and regional governments so that each is in a sphere cordinate and independent. Federalism in Nigeria can be traced to Sir Frederick Lord Lugard, when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated in 1914. To avert this domination, states unite to form a strong, virile and stable union capable of withstanding external attacks. For instance, such noun phrases like: nationality, nation, citizenship, identity, ethnicity, ethnic group, indigene, state of origin, etc, are inherently conflict laden, with abundant intellectual understandings. The paper identifies and discusses the problems associated with separatist movements and how they affect national and social security, and argues that while the definition of state failure is contested and therefore Nigeria cannot yet be called a failed state, but certainly a fragile state. Naturally, federal system of government has some distinctive features namely: 1. It means that the sovereign unit (Centre) and local units . Stated reasons of the coup were prevailing gangsterism and disorder, corruption and nepotism in the civil government. As one of the most effective frameworks for governing a pluralistic society, Nigeria adopted Federalism to manage her multi-ethnic state. It concluded that the interplay of these variables leads to the degeneration of the national question and. SjHw`d"*z;3N&W3k]:}N\t+5 (Nw3hW"T"aDV$V e. However, the practice of fiscal federalism in Nigeria is a negation of true federalism. The Plural nature of Nigeria: Nigeria is a plural society of over 250 tongues and tribes. Despite the profound and lengthy discussions that have taken place on the subject for about four and half decades, consensus has not been reached concerning the optimal formula to adopt to achieve desired economic development . So majority if not all of them were in favor of a federalist system of governance. It also shows the growth rate as an engine to the development of economies of developing countries like Nigeria in this 21p century. MCC Vol 2 No 1 Article 04.pdf, GJ #2018, 2, Globalization and Federation in Peril: Renewed Agitations for Statehood and the Future of Nigerian State, by A. M. Maigari and U. Dantani, GLOBALIZATION AND FEDERATION IN PERIL: RENEWED AGITATIONS FOR STATEHOOD AND THE FUTURE OF NIGERIAN STATE, RESTRUCTURING NIGERIA: BEYOND POLITICAL RHETORIC AND THE MORAL PANIC, PDF copy of Published paper on Agitation and restructuring.pdf, ESSAYS ON RIGHT TO SELF DETERMINATION AS A PEREMPTORY NORM AND THE LIMITATION IN EXERCISING THAT RIGHT.pdf, Federalism, Military Legacies and the Restructuring Debate in Contemporary Nigeria, Legal Aid Journal of Legal Issues Vol. << This prototype edition of the daily Federal Register on FederalRegister.gov will remain an unofficial informational resource until the Administrative Committee of the Federal Register (ACFR) issues a regulation granting it official legal status. From the above explanation, one can rightly say that the constitution of Nigeria and United States of America are federal constitutions while the constitution of France and the Republic of Ireland are Unitary constitutions. POL 124 MAIN CONTENT Mar 21, 2011 NEW (1), Resource Control, Federalism and Peace in the Niger Delta: A Reflection on Nigeria at Fifty, Federalism and Revenue Allocation in Nigeria: A Critical Evaluation of the Derivation Principle, Legal Framework for Fiscal Federalism: Issues and Options for Reform, RESOURCE CONTROL, REVENUE ALLOCATION AND PETROLEUM POLITICS IN NIGERIA: THE NIGER DELTA QUESTION, Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in Nigeria's Fourth Republic: Issues and Challenges, The Nigerian State and the Quest for Restructuring: Implications for Democratic Consolidation, Federalism, Democracy and Constitutionalism: The Nigerian Experience. government and the governed by enhancing political cohesion in such country with regional, ethic, racial, linguistic and cultural diversity like Nigeria. /Height 235 A Policy Brief examining the actors, factors and dynamics of the agitations, questioning if the current agitation is another flash in the pan and if current responses are adequate to address the agitations for secession of Biafra from Nigeria. Nigeria is a plural society of over 250 tongues and tribes. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds toupgrade your browser. Nigeria as a nation has succeeded in commanding influence among member states by the virtue of its size. It discovered a positive relationship between the changes in the fiscal structure and the aggravation of ethnic minorities' struggles. What are the reasons Nigeria adopted the Federalism system of government in Nigeria? It advocates good governance and a participatory approach to constitutional review as the foundations for strong constitutionalism in Nigeria. It established that the resources of a particular state is not totally owned by the federal government. The construct of federalism, which originates with the concept of intergovernmental relations, dates back to the Greek civilization. The Plural nature of Nigeria. The crux of the matter is that the minorities fear the domination of the majorities, but federalism allows them some independent existence, and as such, their fears, both real and fancied, are allayed. Also, the adoption of the Littleton constitution of 1954 laid further credence to . This notwithstanding, the concept of federalism boasts of a very popular definition by an American scholar, K.C. One of the major reasons why countries choose federalism is because of size. of diversities helps in a nations decision to adopt the aggregative or disaggregative type of federalism. Further Philosophical Issues 4.1 Sovereignty or federalism 4.2 Issues of Constitutional and Institutional Design 4.3 Sources of Stability 4.4 Division of Power 4.5 Distributive Justice Unity of the country: 3.3 3. In his judgment, Ogundare JSC agreed that the provisions to Sections 162(2) of the constitution re-stabilized the principle of derivation. History of federal system of government in nigeria. And this is one of the factors responsible for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria. The United States, Canada, India, France and Australia adopted federalism because of the desire for security by the various ethnic units. +rohyC ! 9S ) ?roh _ O4C sR & Pf?? AK kyC?& Pf;_Hu j_ G$: 5/ The governmental powers are shared between the federal government and the thirty-six state governments. Thus, there is continuous agitation by many ethnic nationalities for a sovereign national conference in order to renegotiate the Nigeria federal deal to put Nigeria on the path of true federalism to guarantee her unity and co-existence. Unfortunately, since the formation of Nigeria and adoption of this system of governance in the country has not seen much effect of federalism. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Even the masses in the rural areas of the country are allowed to participate in politics by electing their representatives into office. The unity here is brought about by the desire of the component units of the federation to form union in respect of some matters. As at the time of independence, the population of Nigeria was estimated at 45.21 million. $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ? Also, Read: Bad Leadership Causes, Effects And Solutions In Nigeria. Payment Details. Are there certain inherent and primordial grievances and preferences? Consequently, the economic condition was one of the reasons that led to the adoption of federal systems of government in both Nigeria and South Africa. This is because federalism is presented as a panacea in organizing distinct political identities under a state. Minority Issues and the Creation of State | Week 10. This post will give you some insight into why federalism was adopted as the system of governance in Nigeria. Nigeria as a result was divided into three provinces. Nigeria is quite a big country with an area of 923,768 km2. %PDF-1.5 Here, the Attorney General of the Federation Instituted the case to test the true position so that the federal government would be guided on the varying issues of derivation formula. |4-Iv Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Federalism is a defined or is said to be the system where powers are shared between central and regional governments so that each is in a sphere coordinate and are independent. Journal of public administration and Management Vol.6,No.12, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The fact that these nations chose to adopt a federal system does not prove anything; it does, however, suggest that federalism may help these countries manage the problems that come with ethnic . The advanced economies where Nigeria had borrowed leaves from, such as USA practice federalism. The British in their quest for economic wealth and geo-political edges over other Europeans in Africa made Nigeria the largest British colony in Africa. The Evolution, Development and Practice of Federalism in Nigeria Charas Madu Tella, Ahmed Wali Doho, Aliyu Bapeto Abstract Federalism is a political philosophy in which members of a group are. Unfortunately, to suit their interests and political agenda, the federal and state governments over time immemorial have maintained great level of . stream Population of the country Size and population of a country is among the determinants of the level of power and influence which a country commands. Justice Udo Udoma is of the view that regionalism was introduced by the colonialists in order to divide and rule, and weaken true national unity in Nigeria. This understanding is also in tune with that of Jinadu (1979:15), who insists that Federalism is usually viewed as a form of governmental and institutional structure, deliberately designed by political architects, to cope with the twin but difficult task of maintaining unity while also preserving diversity. It is no news, therefore, that the peoples of Nigeria are diverse in different respects culturally, historically, socially, religiously, educationally, industriously, and even philosophically. The constitution must be rigid to avoid frequent and unnecessary changes. A large body of literature exists on Nigeria's fiscal federalism particularly with reference to revenue allocation. But nigeria today became the proudable and bearable country, Promoters of the idea were of the view that the This paper recommends that there should be an overhaul of the political system through constitutional amendment process to expunge provisions that negate federalism and provide for implementation of true federalism. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The contradictions generated by this rigional arrangement threatened Nigeria unity. Defence, Security, Economy and Development, Chigozirim Odinkalu, Ebenebe Ernest Onyeka, Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies (eJECS), International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences(IJRESS), Glocalism: Journal of Culture, Politics and Innovation, African Journal of Governance and Development, Calabar Journal of Politics and Administration. Northern Cameroons should remain with Northern Nigeria but Southern Cameroon should be granted autonomy with a legislature of its own. endobj In Nigerias case, the tongues and tribes that made up Nigeria has one colonial history. - Cooperative or "marble-cake" federalism is de ned as a exible relationship between the national and state government in which both work together on a variety of issues and programs. Federalism was favoured among other systems of government in a bid to averting . Critically, after that train, every other train went to Nigeria from Nigeria, indicating the enormity of the wall of enmity demarcating Nigeria from the sovereign State of Biafra. These crises flow from issues such as fiscal federalism, corruption, credible elections, tribal politics, ethno-religious conflicts, and disdain for the rule of law. /Filter /DCTDecode However, where there is a conflict of authority between the federal government and regional government, the federal authority supersedes. Federalism did not return to Nigeria until after his death. Multi-Ethnicity Nigeria is a country with a lot of ethnic groups. "There are reasons why some nation-states opt for federalism. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Federalism shares power between the central and regional governments; thus promoting efficiency in service delivery and governance. FRED EKPE F. AYOKHAI, Peter W I L F R E D Naankiel, This study, using content analysis, examined the impact of fiscal federalism and the struggles of ethnic minority groups in the Niger Delta on the trajectories of the national question in Nigeria. %PDF-1.5 Required fields are marked *. INTERNAL COLONIALISM IN NIGERIA Some of the reasons for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria are the diversity of the nation and the desire for political, cultural and social identity of a people of over 250 ethnic groups, several languages, diversities and a lot of political traditions; the desire for some form of Do you know the reasons for federalism in Nigeria? Also, Read: Local Government In Nigeria : Definition, Functions, And Importance. This feature of federalism is widely believed to be a veritable framework for even and need-sensitive development. Nigeria, a previously unitary state, became a federation in 1954. +roiF9_? AK ku nh4P9\ }}31Ik "V mk@G~ . ideology, federalism becomes the only solution to ensure peace and unity amongst the. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is publishing this proposed rule to revise HUD's regulations for branch office registration requirements. Nigeria therefore falls into the latter because of the wide diversities. Each state has the same level of self-governance. In recent times, specifically in post 2015 general election, there have been new waves of agitations for the Biafra republic by both Movement for Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra and Indigenous People of Biafra on one hand and for Niger Delta republic by Niger Delta Avengers on the other, added to terrorism and militancy that are already threatening Nigeria fragile state. Section 10 of the constitution rule outs the adoption of any religion as a state religion either. According to Ayoade (2009:iii): Nigerians have come to identify the first republic 1960- 66 as the golden age of federalism in Nigeria. By the time Nigeria became a republic, the system of federalism was adopted and the country was considered as a federation of three regions. /Contents 4 0 R Federalism is a method of segregating powers so that the central and local governments are each within a domain, harmonizing and autonomous. mlb draft signing bonus by round, wrestlers who served in the military, harder mechanical safety bucks,
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